[557] Still, Stalin foresaw the undesirability of a nuclear conflict, saying in 1949 that "atomic weapons can hardly be used without spelling the end of the world. [169] In Lenin's absence, Stalin continued editing Pravda and served as acting leader of the Bolsheviks, overseeing the party's Sixth Congress, which was held covertly. [232], In mid-August 1920, the Poles repulsed the Russian advance, and Stalin returned to Moscow to attend the Politburo meeting. [422] The first Moscow Trial took place in August 1936; Kamenev and Zinoviev were among those accused of plotting assassinations, found guilty in a show trial, and executed. [414] This mixed approach began to change in December 1934, after prominent party member Sergey Kirov was murdered. [363] The government's anti-religious campaign was re-intensified,[364] with increased funding given to the League of Militant Atheists. We and our partners process personal data such as IP Address, Unique ID, browsing data for: Use precise geolocation data | Actively scan device characteristics for identification.. [451] He sought to maintain Soviet neutrality, hoping that a German war against France and Britain would lead to Soviet dominance in Europe. [343], Many of major construction projects, including the White Sea-Baltic Canal and the Moscow Metro, were constructed largely through forced labour. [205] To secure access to the dwindling food supply, in May 1918 Sovnarkom sent Stalin to Tsaritsyn to take charge of food procurement in southern Russia. [865] In under three decades, Stalin transformed the Soviet Union into a major industrial world power,[866] one which could "claim impressive achievements" in terms of urbanisation, military strength, education and Soviet pride. [829] He gave nicknames to his favourites, for instance referring to Yezhov as "my blackberry". [575] Capital punishment was abolished in 1947 but reinstalled in 1950. [603], After the war, Stalin sought to retain Soviet dominance across Eastern Europe while expanding its influence in Asia. [39] He also read Capital, the 1867 book by German sociological theorist Karl Marx. When he was in his 30s, he took the name Stalin, from the Russian for “man of steel.”Stalin grew up poor and an only child. Er nennt ihn einen Anhänger von "Fortschritt und Frieden" und ist sich insgeheim sicher, mit "Uncle Joe", wie er Stalin nennt, fertig zu werden. It sought to provide a guide to leading the country after his death. [926] At the same time, there was a growth in pro-Stalinist literature in Russia, much relying upon the misrepresentation or fabrication of source material. It nevertheless clashed with established Bolshevik views that socialism could not be established in one country but could only be achieved globally through the process of world revolution. [49] They attempted to arrest him in March 1901, but he escaped and went into hiding,[50] living off the donations of friends and sympathisers. [250] Stalin also agreed to supervise the Department of Agitation and Propaganda in the Central Committee Secretariat. [60] Held first in Batumi Prison[61] and then Kutaisi Prison,[62] in mid-1903 he was sentenced to three years of exile in eastern Siberia. [549] On 8 August, in between the U.S. atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Soviet army invaded Japanese-occupied Manchuria and defeated the Kwantung Army. [494] Stalin issued Order No. Want an ad-free experience?Subscribe to Independent Premium. But not all Georgians, especially educated ones, followed the old ways. 270, Stalin commanded soldiers risking capture to fight to the death describing the captured as traitors;[493] among those taken as a prisoner of war by the Germans was Stalin's son Yakov, who died in their custody. [756] After 1932, he favoured holidays in Abkhazia, being a friend of its leader, Nestor Lakoba. [395], In 1935–36, Stalin oversaw a new constitution; its dramatic liberal features were designed as propaganda weapons, for all power rested in the hands of Stalin and his Politburo. [65] He made two escape attempts: On the first, he made it to Balagansk before returning due to frostbite. [837] Stalin married twice and had several offspring. First it was his father and the boys on the streets of his native town Gori. Then he launched and saw through a bloody socialist remaking of the entire former empire, presided over a victory in the greatest war in human history, and took the Soviet Union to the epicentre of global affairs. [400] By 1938, Stalin's inner circle had gained a degree of stability, containing the personalities who would remain there until Stalin's death. Meanwhile, Dave TDS finds out just how hard it is to invade Russia, and we listen to Uncle Joe Stalin's Nursery Rhymes and find out that, at one point, he also decided that the key to world domination might, in fact, lie in poo. [882] Service similarly warned of the portrayal of Stalin as an "unimpeded despot", noting that "powerful though he was, his powers were not limitless", and his rule depended on his willingness to conserve the Soviet structure he had inherited. [449] According to historian James Harris, contemporary archival research shows that the motivation behind the purges was not Stalin attempting to establish his own personal dictatorship; evidence suggests he was committed to building the socialist state envisioned by Lenin. By mid-1928 he was unable to rally sufficient support in the party to oppose the reforms. [456] On 3 May 1939, Stalin replaced his western-oriented foreign minister Maxim Litvinov with Vyacheslav Molotov. After Stalin's death in 1953, he was eventually succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who denounced him and initiated the de-Stalinisation of Soviet society. [623], At the end of the Second World War, the Soviet Union and the United States divided up the Korean Peninsula, formerly a Japanese colonial possession, along the 38th parallel, setting up a communist government in the north and a pro-Western government in the south. [877] According to Kotkin, Stalin "built a personal dictatorship within the Bolshevik dictatorship. [825] According to Beria, Stalin had affairs with several Jewish women. [436] These purges replaced most of the party's old guard with younger officials who did not remember a time before Stalin's leadership and who were regarded as more personally loyal to him. Walking round the gloomy dormitories of this building in Tbilisi in summer 2002, I could well appreciate why he found the priestly atmosphere stultifying. [392] The Soviet government believed that food supplies should be prioritized for the urban workforce;[393] for Stalin, the fate of Soviet industrialisation was far more important than the lives of the peasantry. "[591] He personally took a keen interest in the development of the weapon. [536] Over one million people were deported as a result of the policy. [182] Stalin became part of an informal foursome leading the government, alongside Lenin, Trotsky, and Sverdlov;[183] of these, Sverdlov was regularly absent and died in March 1919. [512] In February 1943, the German troops attacking Stalingrad surrendered. [66] His second attempt, in January 1904, was successful and he made it to Tiflis. [668] The collective leadership included the following eight senior members of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union listed according to the order of precedence presented formally on 5 March 1953: Georgy Malenkov, Lavrentiy Beria, Vyacheslav Molotov, Kliment Voroshilov, Nikita Khrushchev, Nikolai Bulganin, Lazar Kaganovich and Anastas Mikoyan. [203] The governing RSDLP party was soon renamed, becoming the Russian Communist Party. [33] As he grew older, Stalin lost interest in priestly studies, his grades dropped,[34] and he was repeatedly confined to a cell for his rebellious behaviour. [717] The socio-economic nature of Stalin's Soviet Union has also been much debated, varyingly being labelled a form of state socialism, state capitalism, bureaucratic collectivism, or a totally unique mode of production. [767] Montefiore suggested that this charm was "the foundation of Stalin's power in the Party". Stalin's original Georgian name was Ioseb Besarionis dze Jughashvili (, While forced to give up control of the Secretariat almost immediately after succeeding Stalin as the body's, Although there is inconsistency among published sources about Stalin's exact date of birth, Ioseb Jughashvili is found in the records of the Uspensky Church in Gori, Georgia as born on 18 December (, sfnm error: no target: CITEREFSnyder2011 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFBBC_News,_5_March_2013 (, General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Allied Intervention in the Russian Civil War, Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union, robbing of a large delivery of money to the Imperial Bank, Joseph Stalin during the Russian Revolution, Civil War, and the Polish–Soviet War, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, granting Finland's request for independence in December, Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, major famine which peaked in the winter of 1932–33, The History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Bolsheviks), as well as sitting members of the Central Committee, attempted an encirclement attack at Kursk, atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, between 26 and 27 million Soviet citizens had been killed, Economic Problems of Socialism in the USSR, Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Communist Party of Great Britain (Marxist–Leninist), Excess mortality in the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin, On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences, Communist Party of the Russian Federation, Soviet victory over Nazi Germany in World War II, Kyiv International Institute of Sociology, Bibliography of Stalinism and the Soviet Union, Everyday Stalinism: Ordinary Life in Extraordinary Times: Soviet Russia in the 1930s, Stalin's Peasants: Resistance and Survival in the Russian Village after Collectivization, Australian National University, December 2016, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 1 March 2013, "Stalin and the Soviet Famine of 1932-33: A Reply to Ellman", "Labor Misallocation and Mass Mobilization: Russian Agriculture during the Great War", "Soviet Repression Statistics: Some Comments", "The Role of Leadership Perceptions and of Intent in the Soviet Famine of 1931–1934", "Victims of the Soviet penal system in the pre-war years: a first approach on the basis of archival evidence", "A Tale of "Two Totalitarianisms": The Crisis of Capitalism and the Historical Memory of Communism", "August Storm: The Soviet 1945 Strategic Offensive in Manchuria", "The Soviet-German War 1941–45 Myths and Realities: A Survey Essay", "GOLFO ALEXOPOULOS. [881], McDermott nevertheless cautioned against "over-simplistic stereotypes"—promoted in the fiction of writers like Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Vasily Grossman, and Anatoly Rybakov—that portrayed Stalin as an omnipotent and omnipresent tyrant who controlled every aspect of Soviet life through repression and totalitarianism. [846] Nadezdha suspected that this was the case,[847] and committed suicide in 1932. [92], Stalin married Kato Svanidze in a church ceremony at Senaki in July 1906. [247] On this trip, Stalin met with his son Yakov, and brought him back to Moscow;[248] Nadezhda had given birth to another of Stalin's sons, Vasily, in March 1921. [339] In 1928, the first five-year plan was launched, its main focus on boosting heavy industry;[340] it was finished a year ahead of schedule, in 1932. [198] Socialist revolutionaries accused Stalin's talk of federalism and national self-determination as a front for Sovnarkom's centralising and imperialist policies. [312] Stalin's government feared attack from Japan, France, the United Kingdom, Poland, and Romania. [46] He attracted a group of supporters through his classes in socialist theory[47] and co-organised a secret workers' mass meeting for May Day 1900,[48] at which he successfully encouraged many of the men to take strike action. [757] In 1934, his new Kuntsevo Dacha was built; 9 km from the Kremlin, it became his primary residence. Conversely, his totalitarian government has been widely condemned for overseeing mass repression, ethnic cleansing, wide-scale deportation, hundreds of thousands of executions, and famines that killed millions. [622] Stalin was concerned that Mao might follow Tito's example by pursuing a course independent of Soviet influence, and made it known that if displeased he would withdraw assistance from China; the Chinese desperately needed said assistance after decades of civil war. [471] One of the most noted instances was the Katyn massacre of April and May 1940, in which around 22,000 members of the Polish armed forces, police, and intelligentsia were executed. [711], Stalin viewed nations as contingent entities which were formed by capitalism and could merge into others. He was faced with the problem that there were few Marxists left in Eastern Europe, with most having been killed by the Nazis. [111] In June, he escaped the village and made it to Kotlas disguised as a woman and from there to Saint Petersburg. Some of the photos may be from earlier dates, but it is believed that this photo of Stalin was taken in 1893. [605] He demanded that war reparations be paid by Germany and its Axis allies Hungary, Romania, and the Slovak Republic. [624] North Korean leader Kim Il-sung visited Stalin in March 1949 and again in March 1950; he wanted to invade the south and although Stalin was initially reluctant to provide support, he eventually agreed by May 1950. [717] Montefiore thought Stalin's brutality marked him out as a "natural extremist";[792] Service suggested he had tendencies toward a paranoid and sociopathic personality disorder. [454] Between 1940 and 1941 he also purged the military, leaving it with a severe shortage of trained officers when war broke out. The tensions that arose between the Soviet-backed Eastern Bloc and U.S.-backed Western Bloc became known as the Cold War. Using the idea of collective responsibility as a basis, Stalin's government abolished their autonomous republics and between late 1943 and 1944 deported the majority of their populations to Central Asia and Siberia. [426] [274], As General Secretary, Stalin had a free hand in making appointments to his own staff, implanting his loyalists throughout the party and administration. Truman rearmed the country, was rude to Uncle Joe’s ambassador, and made Joe angry. [438] Such functionaries often carried out a greater number of arrests and executions than their quotas set by Stalin's central government. [108], In March 1908, Stalin was arrested and interned in Bailov Prison in Baku. [505] Comintern was dissolved in 1943,[506] and Stalin encouraged foreign Marxist–Leninist parties to emphasise nationalism over internationalism to broaden their domestic appeal. [321] According to Stalin biographer Dmitri Volkogonov, de-kulakisation was "the first mass terror applied by Stalin in his own country. American movies such as Mission to Moscow were sympathetic to Russia in general and Stalin in particular, depicting a very likable “Uncle Joe” and celebrating the Soviet Union as America’s ally against Germany. Stalin brutally, artfully, indefatigably built a personal dictatorship within the Bolshevik dictatorship. [227], Following earlier clashes between Polish and Russian troops, the Polish–Soviet War broke out in early 1920, with the Poles invading Ukraine and taking Kyiv on 7 May. [85] On arrival, he met Lenin's wife Nadezhda Krupskaya, who informed him that the venue had been moved to Tampere in the Grand Duchy of Finland. Instead, she remembered how he had sung songs to her and taken her on his knee. Winston Churchill in Coventry: Die Stadt wurde während deutscher Luftangriffe schwer zerstört. A 2012 survey commissioned by the Carnegie Endowment found 38% of Armenians concurring that their country "will always have need of a leader like Stalin. [761] This gained widespread acceptance outside the Soviet Union during his lifetime but was misleading. [453] Stalin initiated a military build-up, with the Red Army more than doubling between January 1939 and June 1941, although in its haste to expand many of its officers were poorly trained. [615] He gambled that the others would not risk war, but they airlifted supplies into West Berlin until May 1949, when Stalin relented and ended the blockade. [552], Stalin attended the Potsdam Conference in July–August 1945, alongside his new British and U.S. counterparts, Prime Minister Clement Attlee and President Harry Truman. [530] Stalin insisted that, after the war, the Soviet Union should incorporate the portions of Poland it occupied pursuant to the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact with Germany, which Churchill opposed. He served as both General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1922–1952) and Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union (1941–1953). [681] Volkogonov believed that Stalin's Marxism was shaped by his "dogmatic turn of mind", suggesting that this had been instilled in the Soviet leader during his education in religious institutions. He went on to edit the party's newspaper, Pravda, and raised funds for Vladimir Lenin's Bolshevik faction via robberies, kidnappings and protection rackets. [137], Stalin's article Marxism and the National Question[138] was first published in the March, April, and May 1913 issues of the Bolshevik journal Prosveshcheniye;[139] Lenin was pleased with it.