During the 20th century it was an object for mass reproduction, merchandising, lampooning and speculation, and was claimed to have been reproduced in "300 paintings and 2,000 advertisements". [89] A new queuing system introduced in 2019 reduces the amount of time museum visitors have to wait in line to see the painting. In the mid-18th century to early 19th century, two butterfly-shaped walnut braces were inserted into the back of the panel to a depth of about one third the thickness of the panel. C’est la lumière qui définit les volumes, les contours sont estompés, la peinture est recouverte de glacis colorés qui vitrifient le tableau. Aujourd'hui, 2008 la Joconde se trouve dans une salle rénovée au Louvre ou elle fait face au tableau de Véronèse " Les noces de Cana ". [citation needed], The Mona Lisa has had many different decorative frames in its history, owing to changes in taste over the centuries. "[30] Woods-Marsden cites Hans Memling's portrait of Benedetto Portinari (1487) or Italian imitations such as Sebastiano Mainardi's pendant portraits for the use of a loggia, which has the effect of mediating between the sitter and the distant landscape, a feature missing from Leonardo's earlier portrait of Ginevra de' Benci. It was exhibited in the Uffizi Gallery for over two weeks and returned to the Louvre on 4 January 1914. [18][71][72] At some point in the 16th century, a varnish was applied to the painting. Histoire des arts : Léonard de Vinci/La Joconde La Joconde – Léonard de Vinci ( 1503 – 1506 ) Artiste : La Joconde a été réalisée par Léonard De Vinci entre 1503 et 1506. Le 16 octobre, la Joconde devrait regagner ses pénates, juste avant l’ouverture, le 24, de la grande exposition consacrée à Léonard, qui promet encore une affluence record. To compensate for fluctuations in relative humidity, the case is supplemented with a bed of silica gel treated to provide 55% relative humidity. [75], In 1911, the painting was still not popular among the lay-public. Pourquoi La Joconde a-t-elle une renommée mondiale aussi exceptionnelle, exprimant la peinture en général et l'idéal féminin en particulier ? In 2004–05, a conservation and study team replaced the maple crosspieces with sycamore ones, and an additional metal crosspiece was added for scientific measurement of the panel's warp. Since the museums participate on a voluntary basis to the regular enrichment of the database, some can present a large part of their collection, while others appear only because of the mere permanent deposits made by the first ones. It holds the Guinness World Record for the highest known insurance valuation in history at US$100 million in 1962[11] (equivalent to $660 million in 2019). [91][92][93] Cotte admits that his investigation was only carried out only in support of his hypotheses and should not be considered as definitive proof. [3] It was kept at the Palace of Fontainebleau until Louis XIV moved it to the Palace of Versailles, where it remained until the French Revolution. Mais il ne l’a certainement jamais eu en sa possession. Informations juridiques. analyse d'un tableau : la Joconde . Considered an archetypal masterpiece of the Italian Renaissance,[4][5] it has been described as "the best known, the most visited, the most written about, the most sung about, the most parodied work of art in the world". "La Joconde" is the French name of the Mona Lisa, which like about half of the collections of the Louvre, is included in the database, as one of 295 items by (42 including 6 paintings), after, or connected with Leonardo da Vinci. La Joconde a été achetée par François I er en 1518 à l'héritier de Léonard de Vinci. [47] According to Vasari, "after he had lingered over it four years, [he] left it unfinished". [87][88] In both cases, the painting was undamaged. [142] Some experts, including Frank Zöllner, Martin Kemp and Luke Syson denied the attribution;[143][144] professors such as Salvatore Lorusso, Andrea Natali,[145] and John F Asmus supported it;[146] others like Alessandro Vezzosi and Carlo Pedretti were uncertain. This flexible frame, which is used in addition to the decorative frame described below, exerts pressure on the panel to keep it from warping further. It comes under the "Direction des Musées de France" (DMF) section of the Ministry. Acquisition Dépôt de Siège national du Parti communiste français. SENS DE L’ŒUVRE : « Giocondo » signifie en italien : heureux et serein … La Joconde pourrait incarner l’idée de bonheur. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Joconde&oldid=996373560, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 26 December 2020, at 05:14. [40], Research in 2008 by a geomorphology professor at Urbino University and an artist-photographer revealed likenesses of Mona Lisa's landscapes to some views in the Montefeltro region in the Italian provinces of Pesaro and Urbino, and Rimini. Both were later exonerated. Since then, bulletproof glass has been used to shield the painting from any further attacks. Il vit de contrats que les plus grands lui passent. For example, Leonardo probably painted his model faithfully since her beauty is not seen as being among the best, "even when measured by late quattrocento (15th century) or even twenty-first century standards. Profitant de la fermeture du musée, il s'approche de La Joconde sans difficulté. Date de création 1930. The title of the painting, though traditionally spelled Mona (as used by Vasari),[12] is also commonly spelled in modern Italian as Monna Lisa (mona being a vulgarity in some Italian dialects), but this is rare in English. Cet oeuvre d'art est sous la responsabilité de Cécile Scailliérez ( conservateur )jusqu'en 2006, novembre 2006 au collectionneur et conservateur Vincent Delieuvin qui s'occupe des peintures italiennes du XVIème siècle. La Joconde, de Léonard de Vinci est un tableau conservé au Louvre, peint sur panneau de bois de 77 centimètres de hauteur sur 53 centimètres de largeur, est le portrait de Mona ( = Madonna) Lisa, probablement femme de Francesco del Giocondo (1465-1528) citoyen de Florence.Léonard de Vinci y travailla quatre années de suite, vers l'an 1500. heydenrich 6 ; ottino della chiesa 31 ; villot i 484 ; hautecoeur 1601 ; c.s.i. Il est 7 heure du matin, nous sommes le lundi 21 août 1911. Statut juridique. [135] The Prado's conclusion that the painting is probably by Salaì (1480–1524) or by Melzi (1493–1572) has been called into question by others. In 1952, the varnish layer over the background in the painting was evened out. Le voleur est un vitrier italien qui avait travaillé au Louvre lors de l'encadrement du tableau. [44] He had begun working on a portrait of Lisa del Giocondo, the model of the Mona Lisa, by October 1503. [137][138][139] However, a more recent report has demonstrated that this stereoscopic pair in fact gives no reliable stereoscopic depth. La Joconde (1503-1506). Ce portrait de Mona Lisa, épouse de Francesco del Giocondo, est devenu célèbre lorsqu'il fut volé en 1911 par un menuisier italien. S'il y a bien une toile de maître incontournable au Louvre, c'est la Joconde, l'œuvre la plus célèbre en peinture de même que Les Esclaves de Michel-Ange peuvent l'être en sculpture. Image réduite : [73] The Mona Lisa was not widely known outside the art world, but in the 1860s, a portion of the French intelligentsia began to hail it as a masterwork of Renaissance painting. [63], Because the Mona Lisa's poplar support expands and contracts with changes in humidity, the picture has experienced some warping. One is moved, troubled ... repressed desires, hopes that drive one to despair, stir painfully." This explains the great precision of the listings. À propos de la notice. [18][20] In French, the title La Joconde has the same meaning. [78][79] The real culprit was Louvre employee Vincenzo Peruggia, who had helped construct the painting's glass case. Some researchers claim that it was common at this time for genteel women to pluck these hairs, as they were considered unsightly. ", "The 'Prado Mona Lisa' – The Mona Lisa Foundation", "Da Vinci's Mona Lisa Entering the Next Dimension", Tweened animated gif of Mona Lisa and Prado version, "Depth Perception and the History of Three-Dimensional Art: Who Produced the First Stereoscopic Images? [54][57][56][69] The hypothetical first portrait, displaying prominent columns, would have been commissioned by Giocondo circa 1503, and left unfinished in Leonardo's pupil and assistant Salaì's possession until his death in 1524. [58][59][60][61] However, by 1993, Frank Zöllner observed that the painting surface had never been trimmed;[62] this was confirmed through a series of tests in 2004. He analyzed the painting in the Louvre with reflective light technology beginning in 2004, and produced circumstantial evidence for his theory. [63], On 6 April 2005—following a period of curatorial maintenance, recording, and analysis—the painting was moved to a new location within the museum's Salle des États. The lamp has a Colour Rendering Index up to 98, and minimizes infrared and ultraviolet radiation which could otherwise degrade the painting. Après un siècle de relative tranquillité, la Joconde est volée le 21 août 1911. Zollner gives a date of c. 1504, most others say c. 1506, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (, Costanza d'Avalos, Duchess of Francavilla, National Museum of Art, Architecture and Design, "The Mona Lisa's Twin Painting Discovered", "The Theft That Made Mona Lisa a Masterpiece", "Mona Lisa – Portrait of Lisa Gherardini, wife of Francesco del Giocondo", "Mona Lisa – Heidelberger find clarifies identity", "Highest insurance valuation for a painting", "Mona Lisa – Heidelberg discovery confirms identity", "German experts crack the ID of 'Mona Lisa, "Riddle of Mona Lisa is finally solved: she was the mother of five", "Mona Lisa backdrop depicts Italian town of Bobbio, claims art historian", "Leonardo's Portrait of Mona Lisa del Giocondo", "Solved: Why Mona Lisa doesn't have eyebrows", "Lurking Beneath the 'Mona Lisa' May Be the Real One", "BBC NEWS – Entertainment – Mona Lisa smile secrets revealed", "Researchers identify landscape behind the Mona Lisa", "Da Vinci 'paralysis left Mona Lisa unfinished, "A Portrait of Leonardo da Vinci May Reveal Why He Never Finished the Mona Lisa", "Leonardo da Vinci never finished the Mona Lisa because he injured his arm while fainting, experts say", "Mona Lisa: A comparative evaluation of the different versions and copies", "Leonardo da Vinci's portrait of Mona Lisa de Giocondo", "The Theft That Made The 'Mona Lisa' A Masterpiece", "The French Burglar Who Pulled Off His Generation's Biggest Art Heist", "Top 25 Crimes of the Century: Stealing the Mona Lisa, 1911", "Review: The Lost Mona Lisa: The Extraordinary True Story of the Greatest Art Theft in History by RA Scotti", "100 Years Ago: The Mastermind Behind the Mona Lisa Heist | The Saturday Evening Post", "Russian tourist hurls mug at Mona Lisa in Louvre", "Will new Mona Lisa queuing system in restored Louvre gallery bring a smile back to visitors' faces? ", "Second Mona Lisa Unveiled for First Time in 40 Years", "The Isleworth Mona Lisa: A second Leonardo masterpiece? [36] Cotte discovered the painting had been reworked several times, with changes made to the size of the Mona Lisa's face and the direction of her gaze. [131] Former director Henri Loyrette reckoned that "80 percent of the people only want to see the Mona Lisa. In recent decades, the painting has been temporarily moved to accommodate renovations to the Louvre on three occasions: between 1992 and 1995, from 2001 to 2005, and again in 2019. Référence. [31], The painting was one of the first portraits to depict the sitter in front of an imaginary landscape, and Leonardo was one of the first painters to use aerial perspective. Mona in Italian is a polite form of address originating as ma donna – similar to Ma'am, Madam, or my lady in English. Accrochée dans le Salon Carré du Louvre, elle connaissait déjà un certain succès, protégée par un verre inséré dans le cadre. French poet Guillaume Apollinaire came under suspicion and was arrested and imprisoned. A detailed analysis in 1933 by Madame de Gironde revealed that earlier restorers had "acted with a great deal of restraint. [28] Zöllner notes that the sitter's general position can be traced back to Flemish models and that "in particular the vertical slices of columns at both sides of the panel had precedents in Flemish portraiture. Subsequently, on 21 April 1974, while the painting was on display at the Tokyo National Museum, a woman sprayed it with red paint as a protest against that museum's failure to provide access for disabled people. [147], Copy of Mona Lisa commonly attributed to Salaì, 16th-century copy at the Hermitage by unknown artist, This article is about the painting. [90], In the early 21st century, French scientist Pascal Cotte hypothesized a hidden portrait underneath the surface of the painting. [citation needed]. In 1906, Louvre restorer Eugène Denizard performed watercolour retouches on areas of the paint layer disturbed by the crack in the panel. [62], The record of an October 1517 visit by Louis d'Aragon states that the Mona Lisa was executed for the deceased Giuliano de' Medici, Leonardo's steward at the Belvedere Palace between 1513 and 1516[65][66][b]—but this was likely an error. En effet, Léonard, invité à la cour de François Ier en 1517, l’emporte sans doute avec lui en France où il meurt deux ans plus tard au Clos Lucé, à Amboise. In 1859, Théophile Gautier wrote that the Mona Lisa was a "sphinx of beauty who smiles so mysteriously" and that "Beneath the form expressed one feels a thought that is vague, infinite, inexpressible. Joconde is the central database created in 1975 and now available online, maintained by the French Ministry of Culture, for objects in the collections of the main French public and private museums listed as Musées de France, according to article L. 441-1 of the Code du patrimoine amouting to more than 1,200 institutions. Certains spécialistes annoncent une date comprise entre 1503 et 1506, d’autres l’attribuent à une période plus tardive, allant de 1513 à 1519. [133], In 2014, a France 24 article suggested that the painting could be sold to help ease the national debt, although it was noted that the Mona Lisa and other such art works were prohibited from being sold due to French heritage law, which states that "Collections held in museums that belong to public bodies are considered public property and cannot be otherwise. [67][c] According to Vasari, the painting was created for the model's husband, Francesco del Giocondo. Zollner states that "None of Leonardo's works would exert more influence upon the evolution of the genre than the Mona Lisa. [86] On 2 August 2009, a Russian woman, distraught over being denied French citizenship, threw a ceramic teacup purchased at the Louvre; the vessel shattered against the glass enclosure. [122] The Baedeker guide in 1878 called it "the most celebrated work of Leonardo in the Louvre",[123] but the painting was known more by the intelligentsia than the general public. In 1913, when the painting was recovered after its theft, Denizard was again called upon to work on the Mona Lisa. [19] The Italian name for the painting, La Gioconda, means 'jocund' ('happy' or 'jovial') or, literally, 'the jocund one', a pun on the feminine form of Lisa's married name, Giocondo. Léonard de Vinci… The listing details are highly structured, using a special vocabulary, which allows for very specific and accurate searches, helped as well by the index. Date acquisition. Il peindra à la même époque Saint Jean-Baptiste, Sainte-Anne. Toutes les oeuvresTout voir; Par musée (204 696) Musée Carnavalet, Histoire de Paris (42 888) Palais Galliera, musée de la Mode de la Ville de Paris (42 561) Petit Palais, musée des Beaux-arts de la Ville de Paris (18 155) Maison de Victor Hugo - Hauteville House (9 938) Musée d’Art moderne de Paris (4 641) Musée de la Libération de Paris - musée du Général Leclerc - musée Jean Moulin "La Joconde est Retrouvée" ("Mona Lisa is Found"). Dated October 1503, the note was written by Leonardo's contemporary Agostino Vespucci. [63], At some point, the Mona Lisa was removed from its original frame. [141] It is a painting of the same subject as Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa. "[110], By the early 20th century, some critics started to feel the painting had become a repository for subjective exegeses and theories. Son plus célèbre tableau, le portrait de Mona Lisa, a été réalisé en superposant plusieurs couches de peinture, reproduisant le modelé et le rendu de la peau avec un réalisme incroyable. Secteur de collection Behind her, a vast landscape recedes to icy mountains. [25] Art historian Carmen C. Bambach has concluded that Leonardo probably continued refining the work until 1516 or 1517. PAPEETE, le 20 août 2019 - La disparition de l’un des plus fameux tableaux de l’histoire ne date pas d’hier mais de 1911. And she's almost drowned in a sprinkler malfunction", "The Louvre, the most visited museum in the world (01.15)", "Culture – Could France sell the Mona Lisa to pay off its debts? En quelques minutes il s'empare du tableau, le dissimule sous sa blouse d'employé et rentre chez lui, dans le Xe arrondissemen… [81] Decker published this account of the theft in 1932.[83]. [114][115], The avant-garde art world has made note of the Mona Lisa's undeniable popularity. [39], Research in 2003 by Professor Margaret Livingstone of Harvard University said that Mona Lisa's smile disappears when observed with direct vision, known as foveal. 1506). Il a alors acquis une grande réputation. [13] In 1516, Leonardo was invited by King Francis I to work at the Clos Lucé near the Château d'Amboise; it is believed that he took the Mona Lisa with him and continued to work on it after he moved to France. [14][15] It is believed by some that the Mona Lisa was begun in 1503 or 1504 in Florence. Il est d’usage de parler de la Joconde comme d’une œuvre que Léonard de Vinciinvité par le roi François Ier aurait amenée avec lui en France. ", "New proof said found for "original" Mona Lisa –", "Mona Lisa: A Comparative Evaluation of the Different Versions and Their Copies", Conservation Science in Cultural Heritage, "Computer Studies of the Isleworth and Louvre Mona Lisas", Scientific analyses conducted by the Center for Research and Restoration of the Museums of France (C2RMF), Madonna and Child with the Infant Saint John the Baptist, The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne and Saint John the Baptist, Museo Nazionale Scienza e Tecnologia Leonardo da Vinci (Milan), Land grant to Marduk-apla-iddina I by Meli-Shipak II, Statue of the Tiber river with Romulus and Remus, Vulcan Presenting Venus with Arms for Aeneas, The Attributes of Civilian and Military Music, The Attributes of Music, the Arts and the Sciences, The Lictors Bring to Brutus the Bodies of His Sons, Coresus Sacrificing Himself to Save Callirhoe, Bonaparte Visiting the Plague Victims of Jaffa, Don Pedro of Toledo Kissing Henry IV's Sword, Joan of Arc at the Coronation of Charles VII, Portrait of Madame Marcotte de Sainte-Marie, Francesca da Rimini and Paolo Malatesta Appraised by Dante and Virgil, Madonna and Child with Saint Peter and Saint Sebastian, Venus and the Three Graces Presenting Gifts to a Young Woman, A Young Man Being Introduced to the Seven Liberal Arts, Portrait of Alof de Wignacourt and his Page, The Doge on the Bucintoro near the Riva di Sant'Elena, Holy Family with the Family of St John the Baptist, Saints Bernardino of Siena and Louis of Toulouse, Madonna and Child with St John the Baptist and St Catherine of Alexandria, Madonna and Child with St Rose and St Catherine, Portrait of Sigismondo Pandolfo Malatesta, Portrait of Doña Isabel de Requesens y Enríquez de Cardona-Anglesola, Crucifixion with the Virgin Mary, St John and St Mary Magdalene, The Archangel Raphael Leaving Tobias' Family, Pendant portraits of Marten Soolmans and Oopjen Coppit, Ixion, King of the Lapiths, Deceived by Juno, Who He Wished to Seduce, The Virgin and Child Surrounded by the Holy Innocents, Francis I, Charles V and the Duchess of Étampes, Street Scene near the El Ghouri Mosque in Cairo, Christopher Columbus Before the Council of Salamanca, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Mona_Lisa&oldid=997344774, Paintings of the Louvre by Italian artists, Articles containing Italian-language text, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from July 2019, Articles with dead external links from June 2016, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using infobox artwork with the material parameter, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2016, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Wikipedia articles with Joconde identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 31 December 2020, at 02:21.